Inflammation is an important host response triggered by invading pathogens or damaged tissues, a response that is aimed at diluting or destroying the pathogens or isolating the involved site. Moderate inflammatory response contributes to the host defense by removing pathogens or aiding in the repair of damaged tissue. However, uncontrolled or prolonged inflammation may promote further tissue damage and could lead to serious disorders due to the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines.
Among inflammatory mediators, IL-1? is a master regulatory cytokine, functioning at several levels of immune responses, such as activation of cells to produce other inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, induction of endothelial cells to express cell membrane adhesion molecules, or assisting in the polarization of human Th17 cells.